On Friday, January 14, 2005, Harvard President Dr. Lawrence Summers suggested that “innate differences” between men and women might be one reason fewer women succeed in science and math careers. In addition, Summers questioned how much of a role discrimination plays in the scarcity of female professors in science and engineering at elite universities. Summers' remarks on women draw fire, and then he had to write a letter to apologize hypocritically “I deeply regret the impact of my comments and apologize for not having weighed them more carefully.”, and at the end of the letter he wrote some high-sounding words to praise women’s contribution in society and sciences.
Should Lawrence Summers apologize? No, I don’t think so, because what he said is true, and he was just the boy who pointed out the emperor has no clothes on. In fact, as a woman, from my self-esteem, I do not want to admit, but I have to admit, in general, men indeed do better than women in math and science. As female, if you are angry because of what
said, that is completely “weak country mentality”. There is no need to be angry due to a sentence. First of all, we have to admit that, in many ways, male performance is better than female, if we don’t have the bearing to accept this fact, we will never be able to make any progress in future. Secondly, we must look for the reasons why women do worse than men, what cause the difference? Finally, under the premise that the gene can not be changed, what can we learn from men and how can we improve our capacity? Lawrence
I don’t know what exactly the
said "innate differences" mean. if he meant that there are some special talent only in Y chromosome, but not in X chromosome, I can only say that Lawrence is really good student of “penis envy" of Freud, and he so overestimated the Y chromosome. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair has two homologous chromosomes, one is from mother, the other is from father. On homologous chromosomes, there are so many alleles which control the same trait, but some are dominant genes, and some are invisible genes, and X and Y are just a pair of homologous chromosomes. I guess the only difference is Y nearly has all dominant genes, in comparison of X chromosome, although males have both X and Y chromosomes, but their external appearance only determined by the genes on Y. Lawrence
I don't deny that men really can take advantage of the Y chromosome to synthesize some special proteins, hormone or other substances which women really don’t have, and males and female also can take the same substances from X chromosome they both have. We have to admit this, but don’t overestimate the Y chromosome, to any sexual organs on male controlled by the Y chromosome, there must be the homologous organs controlled by the X chromosome to respond on female. In fact, with the decryption of human gene sequence, we already start to reveal the mystery slowly.
Figure 1 is Genital Development Before Birth
Fig.1 Genital Development Before Birth
Figure 2 is Development of the external genitalia: Indifferent ( A and B ); Male external genitalia ( C and E ); and Female external genitalia ( D and F ). Gray's Anatomy (1918) figure 1119 (Drawn from the Ecker-Ziegler models).
Fig. 2 Development of the external genitalia
Fig.1 and Fig. 2 are previous theoretical studies, the followings are real pictures around ourselves.
Apparently, we can see that there is a raphe both on glans and foreskin. Use little logical thought, we can conclude that, in the process of development of penis, penis wrapped to backward, and folded the urethra into penis, and the original separated labia majora get fusion into scrotum. In the process of development of clitoris, clitoris shaft, urethra, vagina and labia didn’t get fusion, so there is no raphe on clitoris.
First start common development, and then differentiation. Fact, in embryo research, people have admitted that the genital tubercle develops into the phallus, the first rudiment of the penis or clitoris. I am really curious why Freud and Dr. Ernest Grafenberg still think that women should and must get orgasm through vagina, regardless Gray's Anatomy had showed up very clearly in 1918. I have to question their motives. Did they believe that men also can use other organs or glands to collect pleasure for orgasm, except penis? You must certainly laugh at me, if I tell you that high nose on West people is used to breathe, but flat nose on Asians is used to eat. Penis and clitoris shaft, different appearance, but the same functionality.
I admit that male perform more excellent than female in many area, such as art, music, sports, creative pursuits, science, politics and so on, not only in math and science Lawrene mentioned. But why? Objectively speaking, I really don't think Y chromosome is the key, not because I am a female and I have penis envy. If
was right "innate differences” really exist, as the result is every man should be smarter than every woman., but not that way. Undoubtedly, a lot of people exaggerate the differences between men and women, like Lawrence , but we should see essence through the appearance. But why in general men are more outstanding than women in many ways? I think sex is the key, precisely orgasm is the key. Orgasm really matters a lot. If you ask me what is you favorite activity? I will answer orgasm. It not only can make me release, but also can give me logic and inspiration, maybe that is why I am different from other women. I believe that, one day when women can get out of the trap of reproduction to find the true themselves, women will be the same excellent in every area, maybe more excellent. lawrence