2014年9月15日星期一

Female orgasm is of fixed neural pattern as same as male



The female orgasm has been a topic of much controversy over and over the years, beginning with Freud who devised the two-orgasm theory: vaginal orgasm and clitoral orgasm, and before Freud, we had centuries of silence. According to his theory, the vaginal orgasm was a feminine, mature and superior sexual response, while the clitoral orgasm was masculine, immature, and inferior, but he did not tell us what exactly the female orgasm is, consequently we get lots of new absurdities before we have clear idea of it. Among the absurdities, the most funny and ridiculous theory is female multiple orgasm, and almost all scholars are still advocating this theory today. According to my doctrine, the basic and key problem lies in the double standards of orgasm definition between sexes.  



Yeah, it sounds ridiculous that, so far, women still can’t get an equal opportunity to enjoy our human unique orgasm shivering. The time has come to solve the age-old scientific mystery, although, scientists have overexposed the female clitoris, but there are many serious misunderstandings about how the clitoris works and how female orgasm works, we are still far away from the truth in this area. Our human beings tend to be deceived by appearances, but ignore the essence hiding under the cover. Our imaginations are always trapped in the area what we can see, like female or male, penile erection or flaccidity, ejaculation or not, but in my eyes, there are all phenotypes, and we didn’t find the essence in the sexual behavior. In fact, sexual activity is just a physiological activity controlled by nervous system like other simple physiological activities, and it, as a physiological reaction by nature, must have its unique fixed neural pattern. Briefly, I do believe the erection, ejaculation and orgasm are a series of neuron conduction with fixed neural pattern.



In ethology, a fixed action pattern (FAP), is an instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion. Fixed action patterns are invariant and are produced by a neural network known as the innate releasing mechanism in response to an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus or releaser (a signal from one individual to another). A fixed action pattern is one of the few types of behaviors which can be said to be hard-wired and instinctive. Neurology is a very specialized course, and hundreds of professional terms wait to bother you. After some open classes and knowledge from internet and open course, finally I am going to build a fixed neural pattern about female orgasm, but now follow my rules, start with a simple fixed neural pattern – the patellar reflex.

Section one: Brief introduction of Nerve System
 

1.1 The patellar reflex

The patellar reflex or knee-jerk is a clinical and classic example of the monosynaptic reflex arc. It is a spinal reflex, a kind of involuntary reflexes, meaning that the neural circuit only goes up to the spinal cord, not the brain. Above figure shows a schematic diagram of this reflex. The pathway for this reflex arc starts at a stretch receptor within the tendon. Hitting this receptor stimulates it, which causes it to send a nerve impulse along a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. Within the spinal cord, the nerve impulse passes from the sensory neuron to a motor neuron and travels back to the thigh muscle. When the impulse arrives at the thigh muscle, it causes it to contract and jerk the lower part of the leg upward. The person is aware that this is happening, so sensory impulses do travel from the spinal cord to the brain almost simultaneously, but there is nothing that can be done to stop it happening.



Reflexes can be spinal reflexes or brain reflexes. The difference in the two types of reflexes is where the reflex arc is found. In higher animals, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This characteristic allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain, although the brain will receive sensory input while the reflex action occurs. An example of a spinal reflex is the knee-jerk reaction and brain reflexes including blinking, coughing and iris contraction within the eye. There are two types of reflex arc: autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles). A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls an action reflex. Usually, when cells within the body are stimulated, they send a message, called a nerve impulse, to the brain. The brain receives the message and then sends back another message in response to this initial stimulation. Nervous system indeed plays an important role in reflex arc. Next we have to introduce the nervous system briefly.



1.2 Nervous systems

The nervous system of vertebrates (including humans) is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a collective term for the nervous system structures that do not lie within the CNS. In summary, the nervous system is organized as follows:




There is no doubt that the most important part of the nervous system is the central nervous system, it controls most functions of the body and mind, and it consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. According to reliable researchers, our human share at least 98.5% of their DNA with chimpanzees. My question is, apparently our humans are not the strongest animal in the world, but why our human is the only species who can rule the earth, and why the rulers of the earth are not chimpanzees, even though we are so extreme similar in DNA, and where the difference about the less than 2% DNA is located? The uniqueness of human evolution is really worth our serious consideration. In my opinion, I think the key lies in the computing power of CNS and the control force from CNS to each organ by PNS. In general, I define human orgasm roughly as a process of a transition from parasympathetic to sympathetic through specific nerve external stimuli, whatever in male or female. I will talk about it in details in section three.



1.3 CNS

The central nervous system consists of the two major structures, the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the most complex part of the human body. For centuries, scientists and philosophers have been fascinated by the brain, but until recently they viewed the brain as nearly incomprehensible. Incomprehension on the brain directly caused misunderstanding on human orgasm, and also the culprit of so called elusive female multiple orgasms. In 2013, President Obama pitched $100 million investment in human brain research, and I hope I can see that day the truth comes to light.



1.3.1 Brain

The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem. Even so far, the mechanisms by which brain activity gives rise to consciousness and thought remain very challenging to understand, and how the brain works remains a mystery, but we can regard the human brain as a CPU, it also has three major functions: receiving messages, computing and sending messages. An interesting thing is different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions, and what amazing and how exquisite division of labor it is!


1.3.2 Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain (the medulla oblongata specifically). The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body but also contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes and central pattern generators. The spinal cord also has three major functions: as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord, as a conduit for sensory information in the reverse direction, and finally as a center for coordinating certain reflexes, like the patellar reflex. Briefly, we can regard the spinal cord as the only communication pathway between the human brain and PNS. The CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, is composed of gray matter and white matter. In contrast to white matter, which mainly serves to transmit nerve signals, grey matter is where such signals are generated and processed. If we can view the grey matter in brain as senior CPU, we can regard the grey matter in spinal cord as junior CPU, and both of them have computing skills, but the difference between them is one is under our subjective control and one is beyond our subjective control.


There are 33 vertebrae in the spinal cord of a human being. They are broadly categorized into 5 areas. They are called Cervical: 7 (C1 to C7); Thoracic: 12 (T1 to T12); Lumbar: 5 (L1 to L5); Sacral: 5 (S1 to S5, fused); Coccygeal: 4 (Co1 to Co4, fused). Detailed accounts of the number of vertebrae in human beings as well as their names and characteristics have been provided below:


1.4 PNS

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the spinal cord and the extremities. In summary, PNS provides the connection between environmental stimuli (either internal or external) and the central nervous system to allow the body to respond properly. Connecting with the spinal cord are 31 pairs of these spinal nerves, which feed sensory impulses into the spinal cord, which in turn relays them to the brain. Conversely, motor impulses generated in the brain are relayed by the spinal cord to the spinal nerves, which pass the impulses to muscles and glands. The CNS and PNS are showed as follows: yellow represent CNS, which have specific different functions within different location; green represent PNS, which take the role of signal pathway between CNS and receptor.



There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column in humans. These are grouped into the corresponding regions of the spinal column namely cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal. There are 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs of thoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves, 5 pairs of sacral nerves, and 1 pair of coccygeal nerves. The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The spinal nerve roots are organized as follows: lateral view and cross-sectional view.


According to the signal transmission direction, the PNS can be divided into afferent nerves and efferent nerves, and we call afferent nerves as sensory pathways - sends information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli; we call efferent nerves as output pathways - carries information from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands. Here output pathways have two branches, according to whether it works without our conscious intervention or not:        Somatic Nervous System (SNS) - controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs;        Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth and cardiac muscle, heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, sexual arousal, and urination. According to the different functions, The ANS can be split into three divisions: the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems. Sympathetic - controls activities that increase energy expenditures; Parasympathetic - controls activities that conserve energy expenditures. Basically speaking, the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are antagonistic. Notice here:  the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves have great relationship with sexual activity; I will talk about it later. All in all, the nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system as follows, and just because of the existence of nervous system, we are not the walking dead. 

Section two: Neurotransmission

All above are the introductions of a lot of important and basic concepts in neuroscience. Before I start to illustrate the fixed neural pattern of female orgasm, I have a last critical issue to be clear – neurotransmission from two aspects, one is how nerve impulse generates in a neuron, and the other is how nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another, and I do believe the mechanism of neurotransmission inspire me a lot in my model of human sexual activity.



2.1 Basic overview of a neuron
A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. There are three basic parts of a neuron: the dendrites, the cell body (Soma) and the axon. Each of neuron has about ten thousand connections to other neurons and those connections are called synapses. Dendrites, which receive the information on a neuron, get the information from the cell before it and pass it on down into the cell. Soma is the cell body of the neuron. The information is generally going to flow from dendrites down to the cell body, get summed up at the axon hillock, the cell will decide whether to fire or not, if fire and then send signals on down to the terminal. The following figure is the structure of a typical neuron.



2.2 How nerve impulse generates in a neuron

The human nervous system contains roughly 100 billion neurons, connected in elaborate networks that transmit information from one location in the body to another. Action potentials in neurons are also known as ‘nerve impulses’ or ‘spikes’, and it mainly contains two parts: produce impulse and transmission. 


2.2.1 The rest potential

Nearly all cell membranes in animals, plants and fungi maintain an electric potential difference (voltage)—the membrane potential. The existence of membrane potential is because of the polarization of the neuron's membrane: sodium is on the outside, and potassium is on the inside, and the membrane permeability for potassium(K+) is much higher than that for other ions(Na+), and because of the strong chemical gradient for potassium, potassium ions flow from the cytosol into the extracellular space carrying out positive charge, until their movement is balanced by build-up of negative charge on the inner surface of the membrane. In non-excitable cells, and in excitable cells in their baseline states, the membrane potential is held at a relatively stable value, called the resting potential. For this reason, we can regard the cell generally stays in a normal polarized state before any stimulus, and the voltage roughly remains unchanged. The result of being polarized is that the electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative. In most neurons the resting potential has a value of approximately -70 mV. The voltage keeps balance between the outside and the inside, until a stimulus comes along. Briefly, cells stay in the state of polarization if without any stimulus.



2.2.2 Depolarization

Action potential is a real impulse. In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory. The successive stages of the action potential are as following picture: I suddenly find that this graph is very similar to my Female Sexual Response Model which I proposed in 2011 in my blog, and I will compare them together in details later. 




Threshold potential

The threshold potential is the critical level to which the membrane potential must be depolarized in order to initiate an action potential. Each neuron has a threshold level - the point at which there's no holding back. Most often the threshold potential is a membrane potential value between –40 and –55 mV, but it can vary based upon several factors. When a cell gets a stimulus, few sodium activation gates open and allow the Na+ that was on the outside of the membrane to go into the cell, and polarization start to be removed. After the stimulus goes above the threshold level, more gated ion channels open and allow more Na+ inside the cell. This causes complete depolarization of the neuron and an action potential is created. In this state, the neuron continues to open Na+ channels all along the membrane. When this occurs, it's an all-or-none phenomenon. ‘All-or-none’ means that if a stimulus doesn't exceed the threshold level and cause all the gates to open, no action potential results; however, after the threshold is crossed, there's no turning back; and complete depolarization occurs and the stimulus will be transmitted. As long as the depolarization caused by the stimulus is above threshold, action potential is inevitable generated into runaway condition. In an action potential, we call the black line before the peak as depolarizing phase.


All-or-none law

The all-or-none law is the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus. If the stimulus exceeds the threshold potential, the nerve or muscle fiber will give a complete response; otherwise, there is no response. The amplitude of an action potential is independent of the amount of current that produced it. In other words, larger currents do not create larger action potentials. Therefore, action potentials are said to be all-or-none signals, since either they occur fully or they do not occur at all. This same principle is going to be applied to my model. 


Local potential

An electrical stimulus which below threshold strength fails to elicit a propagated spike potential is called local potential. The local potential is the depolarization of a cell below threshold, and because it can’t reach the threshold level, so can’t trigger a complete depolarization, but local potential has superimposed effect. A graded, or local, potential is a depolarization in the resting potential because of a stimulus that is applied to only one area of a plasma membrane. If a membrane has already had one local stimulus applied and has not yet returned to its resting potential when another local stimulus is applied, these two stimuli can combine. This will create a greater potential that can travel farther down the membrane. As the graded potentials continue to grow stronger, they have the potential to depolarize the membrane past its threshold. After the threshold is reached, an action potential is generated. EPSPs (Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential) and IPSPs (Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential) are both graded potentials: when multiple EPSPs occur on a single patch of postsynaptic membrane, their combined effect is the sum of the individual EPSPs. This superimposed effect can be divided into spatial summation and temporal summation. When a given target neuron receives inputs from multiple sources, those inputs can be spatially summated if the inputs arrive closely enough in time before the influence of each has decayed it is called spatial summation. If a target neuron receives input from a single axon terminal and that input occurs repeatedly at short intervals, the inputs will summate temporally, it is called temporal summation. You can see the EPSP, IPSP and the superimposed effect in the above picture. Key words: local potential, superimposed effect and threshold, where my inspiration comes from. I think the whole sexuality is the process of summating of local potential to reach the threshold. 


2.2.3 Repolarization

At the peak of the action potential, the sodium permeability is maximized and the membrane voltage Vm is nearly equal to the sodium equilibrium voltage ENa. The sodium channels become inactivated and the potassium channels open, so intracellular voltage decreases rapidly because K+ escapes out of the cell. We call the black line after the peak before the rest level as repolarizing phase of the action potential.



2.2.4 Hyperpolarization

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization. It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold. In neurons, the cell enters a state of hyperpolarization immediately following the generation of an action potential. I guess the existence of hyperpolarization is because the physiological inertia of potassium ions and sodium potassium pump. The sodium-potassium pump is a system of energetic transfer that moves potassium ions into and sodium ions out of a cell against the concentration gradient. It is now known that it pumps three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in.



2.2.5 Refractory period

There are two stages of this phase, the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period. During the absolute refractory period, the cell refuses to generate another action potential. During the relative refractory period, it is possible for the cell to generate another action potential, however it takes a larger than usual signal. This refractory period of repolarization occurs because there is a hyperpolarization of the cell due to the influx of potassium ions after an action potential has passed.



2.3 How nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another
After a neuron is triggered successfully and decide to fire, and then send the nerve impulse to the axon terminal, now the next issue is how to pass the signal on, or how to trigger the next neuron? In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise). There are two fundamentally different types of synapses: chemical synapse and electrical synapse. 


2.3.1 Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are synapses that use chemical messengers called Neurotransmitters to transmit signals. There is a space (the synaptic cleft) between the axon terminus and the adjacent neuron. As the action potential reaches the end of the axon, a chemical is released that travels across the synaptic cleft to the next neuron to alter its electric potential. Electrical and chemical synapses differ fundamentally in their transmission mechanisms. At electrical synapses, gap junctions between pre- and postsynaptic membranes permit current to flow passively through intercellular channels. This current flow changes the postsynaptic membrane potential, initiating (or in some instances inhibiting) the generation of postsynaptic action potentials. At chemical synapses, there is no intercellular continuity, and thus no direct flow of current from pre- to postsynaptic cell. Synaptic current flows across the postsynaptic membrane only in response to the secretion of neurotransmitters which open or close postsynaptic ion channels after binding to receptor molecules. Compared to eternal excitability during electrical synapses transmission of information, chemical transmission, albeit more complex allows for far more control, including the ability to excite or inhibit the postsynaptic cell. Here the conduction of information can cause either depolarization or hyperpolarization, depending on the nature of the chemical substance. Common neurotransmitters include: Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Norepinepherine, Serotonin. The structure of a chemical synapse and the sequence of events are shown as follows:

Between the pre- and postsynaptic cells, there is a gap about 20 nm wide called the synaptic cleft, much longer than electrical synapses. Chemical synapses pass information directionally from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic cell and are therefore asymmetric in structure and function. The presynaptic terminal, is a specialized area within the axon of the presynaptic cell that contains neurotransmitters enclosed in small membrane-bound spheres called synaptic vesicles (as well as a number of other supporting structures and organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum). The following are the several characteristics of chemical synapses:

A. synaptic delay (Asynchrony)

B. sensitive to oxygen deficit

C. important in plasticity

D. unidirectional

E. selective (may result in excitation or inhibition of postsynaptic cell)

F. non - attenuation


Notice here: synaptic delay means the time is needed during the whole process of electric potential converted into chemical release and then back to the electric potential again. Apparently, just because of the existence of asynchrony in the process of sexual threshold breaking, so all male mammals have to rub the penis for a while in order to ejaculate.



2.3.2 Electrical synapse

In electrical synapse, the neuron is directly adjacent to other neurons. Small holes in each cell's membrane, called gap junctions, are juxtaposed so that as the action potential reaches the end of the axon, the depolarization continues across the membrane to the postsynaptic neuron directly. At gap junctions, such cells approach within about 3.5 nm of each other, a much shorter distance than the 20- to 40-nanometer distance that separates cells at chemical synapse. Although they are a distinct minority, electrical synapses are often found in neural systems including the human brain that require the fastest possible response, such as defensive reflexes. Briefly, there is no space between two neurons, and gap junction linked them together. In many animals, electrical synapse-based systems co-exist with chemical synapses. The structure of an electrical synapse is shown as follows:





Electrical transmission occurs by virtue of the fact that the cells are in direct contact with each other: depolarization of the presynaptic cell membrane causes a depolarization of the postsynaptic cell membrane, and the action potential is propagated further. Compared to chemical synapse, the electrical synapse transmission of information is always excitatory: the conduction of information always causes a depolarization of the adjacent cell's membrane, and electrical synapses conduct nerve impulses faster, but, unlike chemical synapses, they lack gain - the signal in the postsynaptic neuron is the same or smaller than that of the originating neuron. In other words, the signal, in the process of transmission through a series of electrical synapses, must decay gradually. The following are the several characteristics of electrical synapses:

A. no synaptic delay (synchrony)

B. resistant to anoxia

C. no plasticity

D. bidirectional

E. non-selective (excitatory only)

F. attenuation


Here we also can view the characteristic of excitatory only as non-selective, and decay gradually as attenuation. In my opinion, this attenuation in neurotransmission inevitably leads to instability and vulnerability, and you can imagine that, there are several electrical synapses the nerve impulse has to pass by in order to get the target neuron, what if the originating nerve impulse is not strong enough, and it gets weaker and weaker during the traveling, and in a unlucky electrical synapse the nerve impulse becomes so weak no longer to trigger the next neuron, what happens now? The neurotransmission failed. The differences about no delay and attenuation between electrical and chemical synapse are as following picture:


Notice here: the reason I want to emphasize the importance of electrical synapse is that the characteristics of it are so in accordance with human orgasm. In my opinion, the process of human sexuality is the unique combination of half autonomic nervous system and half somatic nervous system, because it not only possesses the property of beyond our subjective control, which belongs to internal organs, but also of collecting external stimuli from outside, which belongs to sense organs. In fact, we can regard the penis/clitoris shaft as externalization of an internal organ, and obviously female clitoris shaft is still in the state of internal organ, so easy to be ignored. At the same time, we also can view the human sexuality as the unique unity of electrical and chemical synapses, because it possesses the characteristics of both. I will explain it in next section later.



2.4 Summary

According to some researches, chemical synapses are almost found in mammals, and electrical synapses mainly are found in fish, amphibians and invertebrates, but unfortunately I didn't find any data about birds. Obviously, fish adopt the reproductive strategy of in vitro fertilization, and amphibians of cloacal kiss as same as birds, and I am curious what kind of mechanism control the spermiation in fish, amphibian and bird. What I am sure is they don’t rub any organs, because they don’t have penis to rub, so whether we can come to this conclusion that the brain controls the process of sperm release in non mammalians. Then next question: by what? I mean, apparently we can regard the process of sperm release as a fixed neural pattern, my question is the male birds control spermiation by electrical synapses or chemical synapses? Maybe we can divide the mechanisms of male spermiation into two types: one is controlled by CNS directly; such as fish with in vitro fertilization, amphibian and bird with cloacal kiss, on the contrary, the other is beyond the CNS direct control, it needs the stimuli from PNS to complete this process of spermiation.


I am not quite sure the bird, fish or amphibian adopt the electrical synapses to control the spermiation or not, but there is no doubt that our human is use chemical synapses to control spermiation. This is not difficult to deduce, because one of the characteristics of electrical synapse is no delay, electrical synapse has no superimposed effect; but apparently human spermiation has a huge delay compared with continuous stimuli from penis rubbing. To be clear on this point is very important foundation stone for my model.


Apparently, synapses evolved from electrical synapses to chemical synapses. But why? In order to figure this out, we have to look at the threshold potential. The threshold potential is the critical level to which the membrane potential must be depolarized in order to initiate an action potential. Essentially, the threshold potential plays the role of shield and protection to the neuron. You can imagine that what if there is no threshold potential at all, inevitably leads to the situation that any noise signal without any meaning will be passed on down to the terminal, so in order to stop the small and noisy signals, setting a threshold is a good idea. In other words, only once input signals accumulate to a certain degree, the neuron will be triggered successfully to fire, and this accumulation effect includes the spatial and temporal summation.


I do believe that the principle of threshold potential also can be applied to chemical synapse.

First of all, chemical synapse also has shielded and protective functions to the next cell, and on the contrary, obviously electrical synapse doesn’t have these functions. Once the first neuron get triggered, a series of neurons are triggered after it, which bundled together by gap junction, so we can regard the chemical synapse as a second barrier to block the noisy signals. Of course, chemical synapse also has both spatial and temporal summation, and the temporal summation is more obvious in human ejaculation: when a man feels that he is about to ejaculate, but he doesn’t want to ejaculate so fast and wants to play for a while, what he should do? Yeah, you are right, he could stop penis rubbing and lower the feeling down for a little bit. Why is that? Because of the temporal summation. If he feels he almost approach the threshold of ejaculation, he must stop the afferent nerve input from penis rubbing in timeline, in order to make the local potential decline not breakthrough the target threshold. In fact, results are always the same regardless of the duration of intercourse, because as long as the threshold is reached, the action potential depends on the intrinsic properties of the target neuron, regardless of the size of the input potential or duration of accumulation. I think that is why all men’s orgasm feelings are all same in general. 


Secondly, compared to the electrical synapse with excitatory only, chemical synapse introduced a concept of inhibitory. In other words, there is a logical operation EPSP (+) and IPSP (-) introduced in chemical synapse, so it can be divided into excitatory synapse and inhibitory synapse. One direct result, whether a neuron fires or not, depends on the combined effects of all synapses before it, and we can regard this combined effect as spatial summation. 


Finally, specificity and selectivity. Compared with electrical synapse with no need for neurotransmitter and receptor to recognize, where there is no specificity and selectivity in, but in chemical synapse, when a neuron decides to fire, and then sends the nerve impulse to the axon terminal, and then releases a specific neurotransmitter, but it is too early to say, that the signal transfers successfully, because the key problem is whether there is corresponding receptor on postsynaptic neuron or not, and how many of the corresponding receptor there. All in all, chemical synapse has the logical complexity, and greatly improves the purposiveness and accuracy of signal transmission.

Here is another simple example to help you understand the superimposed effect: Superposition of Waves. The principle of superposition may be applied to waves whenever two (or more) waves travelling through the same medium at the same time. The waves pass through each other without being disturbed. The net displacement of the medium at any point in space or time, is simply the sum of the individual wave displacements. This is true of waves which are finite in length (wave pulses) or which are continuous sine waves. 


Last question


Apparently, nerve reflex arc of our mammalian ejaculation is a process of threshold reaching, so males have to continuously stimulate the dorsal penile nerves to break through the threshold of ejaculation center, and the ultimate goal is to activate the ejaculation centre and then send ejaculation instruction. So my last question is, as senior animals, why mammals evolved to this state, that we adopt the way of threshold accumulation from PNS, as our reproductive strategy, instead of directly controlled by the brain? Very very very interesting question, yeah? Don’t tell me because it is the necessary condition of viviparity. No, definitely not. I have explained in the last paper, the possibility of evolution from oviparity to viviparity depends on female party is under the control of the recessive or dominant sex genes, because the mother with dominant sex genes must interfere with the recessive kids by the umbilical cord, if she adopts the viviparous strategy, the necessary condition of viviparity is the mother must be controlled by the recessive sex genes. The facts prove my point already that most of the birds reproduce with a 'cloacal kiss' - touching together their cloaca for long enough for sperm to transfer from the males to the females, but certain species like ducks, geese, swans and flamingos with penis still take the oviparous strategy. So we definitely can conclude that it has nothing to do with viviparity and oviparity.

There is another noteworthy phenomenon: Insects mating. If you carefully watch the animal world, you will find that male insects also have the penis to insert female body. Precisely speaking that thing is not like the penis in our human body; it should be called the aedeagus. The aedeagus is part of the male insect's phallus, a complex and often species-specific arrangement of more or less sclerotized (hardened) flaps and hooks which also includes in some species the valvae (clasper), which are paired organs which help the male hold on to the female during copulation. During copulation, the aedeagus connects with the ovipore of a female, and then male secretes sperm from the testes during copulation with a female insect. Brifly, I don’t think the male insects have the process of the threshold accumulation like mammals, I do believe that so-called aedeagus just play a role of pipeline, transporting the sperm over to the female, and the order of spermiation is also from brain. It has very different mechanism from real penis in mammals mating. Frankly speaking, so far I am not sure these animals with penis, like non-human mammals, ducks, geese and swans have pleasure during the ejaculation, but according to the theory of the obtaining pleasure and avoiding pain, if they have pleasure, they must pursue this pleasure anytime, not only in mating season.



Then, come back to my question. Let’s start with the case of 'cloacal kiss'. When birds mate, the male gets on top of the female and presses his sexual opening against that of the female by mounting her and flapping his wings to maintain his balance on female, and then the cloacas of both the male and female are pressed tightly together at this juncture in what is termed as a 'cloacal kiss'. It ensures that the sperms pass through smoothly, and the copulation typically lasts just a few seconds, generally 5 to 10 seconds. This process is often interrupted, have to start all over again, sometimes to be repeated 20 times to succeed. The following picture is the mating between rooster and Hen.


You can imagine that this mating process is not simple to complete, on the one hand the male bird has to keep balance and aim at the female opening, and on the other hand brain sends the order of spermiation, of course after he thinks two openings already pressed tightly together. But here the key question is there is a time lag between sending the order of spermiation from brain and semen entering the female cloaca by the junction. In other words, the junction always fragile and unstable, what if the female bird moves for a little bit after the male brain already sends the order of spermiation but before the semen go through the junction? This is a huge waste of semen. This waste also happens in insects mating, even though they have phallus as pipeline to insert female body. Let’s come back to the most critical problem - time lag. Why is there a time lag there? Because the asynchronism exists, and the spermiation signal is sent from brain, and then through the spinal cord to the junction, but you can not guarantee that the junction is linked together perfectly. How to solve this problem? Evolution always can find a way to get them synchronous that bind the two independent things together for a seamless link. It means the brain has to give up on the control of ejaculation center, and return the power back to the male copulatory organ, which has direct contact with female reproductive tract. In other words, original nerve conduction mode controlled by the brain, converts into the new nerve conduction mode controlled by the copulatory organ. You can see the difference between the following two pictures.



In this new model, the male copulatory organ - penis, equivalent to a receptor, generates the signals by rubbing into female reproductive tract to tell ejaculation center ‘Hi, hurry up, release the sperm, I am already and still in female reproductive tract’. So you will find the ejaculation must be accompanied by intense penis rubbing. In order to prevent accidentally penis rubbing in daily life, the ejaculation center has to set a higher threshold than general nerve conduction to shield the central, and consequently only continuous stimuli accumulation from the penis rubbing can cross the threshold, and then trigger the ejaculation center to fire, and we also can regard this higher threshold as central delay, playing the role of shield. The sizes of threshold are very different, depending on the different species, so there is no a disease called premature ejaculation at all. Copulation of many mammals lasts a few seconds, such as most matings only last 10 seconds or less in lions. I think the biggest difference during the copulative process between men and non-human male mammals is where the signal goes and what else centers would be triggered after ejaculation center fires, because I am sure that I can clearly feel wave after wave of the currents bottom-up through my vertebra, when I break through the threshold. 

I have to admit that female orgasm is the by-product of male evolution. Any way, like what I said before, sex differentiation is just a kind of division of labor for better efficient reproduction, ovary genes or testis genes only provide an environment, what the species looks like or what kinds of the functions this species has, must depend on other genes on chromosomes. So I can assert that female and male share the same neural mechanism, and there is just only one type of female orgasm with fixed neural mechanism. Next, I am going to show you my model of human orgasm.

Section three: My sexual response model
 
I do believe that all things are interlinked between macro and micro. So far, as you know the mechanism of orgasm is unclear yet, even there is no united definition about human orgasm; this is the key reason why woman is still deceived by pseudo orgasm. According to Wikipedia, orgasm is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure, and according to Collins dictionary, the orgasm is the most intense point during sexual excitement, characterized by extremely pleasurable sensations and in the male accompanied by ejaculation of semen. So far little is known about the neurochemical basis of orgasm process, but there is no doubt that orgasm is a result of nerve impulses and conduction, so as a kind of nerve conduction, it must comply with the basic rules of nerve conduction, including sensory receptor, afferent nerve, central nervous, efferent nerve and effector, but what confused us in human sex process is it is much more complicated than knee-jerk, because more than one nerve centre exists during the whole process. Let’s analyze one by one on the time axis.



3.1 Brief introductions about the nerves related to sexual behavior

Like what I said in section two, the process of human sexuality is the unique combination of half autonomic nervous system and half somatic nervous system, and we can regard the penis/clitoris shaft as externalization of an internal organ, and obviously female clitoris shaft is still in the state of internal organ, so easy to be ignored, so this reflex arc not only relates to the afferent nerves within somatic nervous system, but also to sympathetic and parasympathetic within autonomic nervous system.



3.1.1 Afferent nerve: pudendal nerve - dorsal nerves of penis/clitoris

According to Wikipedia, the sacral nerves are the five spinal nerves which arise from the sacrum at the lower end of the vertebral column. The nerves divide into branches and the branches from different nerves join with one another, some of them also joining with lumbar or coccygeal nerve branches. The branches of these plexus give rise to nerves that supply much of the hip, thigh, leg and foot. The sacral nerves have both afferent and efferent fibers, thus they are responsible for part of the sensory perception and the movements of the lower extremities of the human body. From the S2, S3 and S4 arise parasympathetic fibers whose electrical potential supply the descending colon and rectum, urinary bladder and genital organs. These pathways have both afferent and efferent fibers and, this way, they are responsible for conduction of sensory information from these pelvic organs to the central nervous system (CNS) and motor impulses from the CNS to the pelvis that control the movements of these pelvic organs. The pudendal nerve originates in the sacral plexus; it derives its fibers from the ventral rami of the second, third, and fourth sacral nerves (S2, S3, S4), as the figure shows below. 


Notice here: you can see that not only the three branches of pudendal nerve arise from the S2, S3 and S4, but also some other branches from others nerves, like posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and tibial nerve, also arise from the S2-S4, but apparently any male can’t get ejaculation through tibial stimulation or posterior femoral cutaneous stimulation. What does this mean? I think this specialization of neurotransmission can be viewed as a kind of division of labor in neurons. Each neuron has its own specific function, which has been decided in the embryonic period before born, as same as cellular and organ differentiation. The function of each neuron can’t be changed or replaced in the future, some are responsible for signal delivery (PNS), and some for logic analysis (CNS), and they work together for the same aim to make survival machine they shared lives better. When you need to complete any physiological action, you must trigger the target neurons one by one in fixed order, which The Creator has written already in our human genes. This whole process can be called fixed reflex arc, like procedures written in computer, and each neuron has to fulfill its obligation. In short, a target central nervous only can accepts the signals from a specified nervous branch. By the way, neural differentiation in genital area has no any difference between sexes, and you don’t have any reasons to believe women would experience different orgasm pattern from men, if you regard the orgasm as a result of neurotransmission. Following figure is the front view of main pudendal nerves and skeletal structure in genital area, whether male or female. 


The pudendal nerve is a sensory, autonomic, and motor nerve that carries signals to and from the genitals, anal area, and urethra, and typically there are three branches of the nerve on each side of the body: a rectal branch, a perineal branch and a clitoral/penile branch. Inside the pudendal canal, the nerve gives off the inferior rectal nerves, and it soon divides into two terminal branches: the perineal nerve, and the dorsal nerve of the penis (males) or the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (in females). Perineal nerve accompanies the perineal artery and divides into two branches: Superficial perineal nerves, becoming posterior scrotal nerves in men, and posterior labial nerves in women; deep branch of the perineal nerve. The pudendal nerve supplies sensation to the penis in males and the clitoris in females, through the branches dorsal nerve of penis and dorsal nerve of clitoris. The posterior scrotum in males and the labia in females are also supplied, via the posterior scrotal nerves (males) or posterior labial nerves (females). The pudendal nerve is one of several nerves supplying sensation to these areas. Branches also supply sensation to the anal canal. By providing sensation to the penis, the pudendal nerve is responsible for the afferent component of penile erection. (See the following figure)



Notice here: The pudendal nerve, including rectal branch, perineal branch and clitoral/penile branch, even though has sensory, autonomic and motor nerve, but apparently the motor nerve is very limited that we barely control the genital region subjectively, except muscle contractions in perineal area. What does this mean? One hand, I think it means, except the limited motor functions like muscle contraction, pudendal nerve mainly is responsible for the afferent sensation to spinal cord through the branches, so I can conclude that there is no other afferent nerve, except three branches of pudendal nerve in the genital area. The other hand, in spite of the existence of posterior scrotal, inferior anal or perineal nerves, apparently you have to admit that penis rubbing (dorsal nerves stimulation) is the only way to make male ejaculation and orgasm. You could ask the gay couples whether anal sex can lead ejaculation or orgasm, and obviously you can’t get ejaculation or orgasm by scrotum touching either. Maybe due to the specialization of the division of labor in neurons what I mentioned before, even though posterior scrotal, inferior anal and perineal nerves all gather sensations to S2-S4, but it can’t change the fact that dorsal nerve stimulation is the only pathway to male ejaculation and orgasm. So my question is why you believe that female can get orgasm from other nerves, except the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. The female innervation in genital area is showed as follows, and apparently the vagina has nothing to do with all afferent nerves. Maybe during the penetration, two perineal branches are involved in, but perineal branch is not the key to ejaculation and orgasm. There is another interesting thing I want to share with you: when I wake up in the morning and touch my labium minus with my hand, I feel nothing about pleasure as same as touching on my leg or my arm; on the contrary, I could feel sexual pleasure at any time when I rub my clitoris shaft. So I even doubt there are all psychogenic erection, except the direct stimulation on the dorsal nerve of the penis (males) or the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (in females). I think the key lies in the existence of a porn center in brain, when the porn center is activated, touching anywhere can be regarded as sexual stimulation, on the contrary, in daily life, the porn center is not activated, and you could feel nothing about sexual pleasure from touching hand, leg, face, except direct dorsal nerve of penis/ clitoris stimulation. The detailed innervations of afferent nerves on female genital area are shown as followed:


Dorsal nerves of penis/clitoris

Without considering the absurd and irresponsible doctrine, that female can have breast orgasm from nipple stroking, or anal orgasm from anal intercourse, or female can have orgasm from meditation, I believe all men have to admit that real shivering orgasm always feels the same way, and must come from penis rubbing, whatever you use, female vagina, male anus or a mouth. Simone de Beauvoir used a vivid metaphor in her book The second sex, that the adage ‘any port in a storm’ is grossly cynical; man seeks something more than brute sexual pleasure; nevertheless the prosperity of houses of prostitution is enough to prove that man can obtain some satisfaction from whatever woman is available. She is quite right, a hole is always and just a hole. The key of orgasm is which organ you should rub, instead of which organ you should rub with. Now we are clear that the nerve is the source of erection, then the first question is figuring out the nerve on the penis. Thanks to modern anatomical techniques, we have known that the innervation of dorsal nerve in penis. You can clearly see penis anatomy from cross-sectional view. 

3.1.2 Nerve bundle

I think it is necessary to introduce the concept of nerve bundle. According to Wikipedia, each nerve is a cordlike structure that contains many axons, also called nerve fibres. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. (See the following figure)

In my opinion, we can regard the concept of nerve bundle as the concept of wide cable in computer. The function of epineurium is just to take the role of classification and protection for fascicles. For example, there are both afferent nerves and efferent nerves within a spinal nerve, and in other words, the fascicles with different functions in a nerve bundle are independent from each other, being wrapped together as a whole is convenient to go to roughly the same region, and then fascicles are separated from each other at the end of the pathway. The pudendal nerve is good example: it divides into branches and the branches from different nerves join with, and each branch still keeps its unique function without any change, and the existence of perineurium is for the relative independence among fascicles. I guess the fascicle is the smallest unit, but I am not sure, maybe a detailed division of labor within fascicle is possible, due to the existence of endoneurium.



3.1.3 Efferent nerve: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Without considering the limited somatic efferent pathways like muscle contraction on perineal area, we almost can not directly control the genital area subjective, because it is controlled by autonomic nervous system - Sympathetic and Parasympathetic. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system that functions largely below the level of consciousness to control visceral functions, including heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, micturition (urination), sexual arousal, breathing and swallowing, etc. The ANS is divided into three main sub-systems: the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the enteric nervous system (ENS). (See the following figure)


In essence, we can regard the sympathetic and parasympathetic as a kind of division of labor in the control of the same organ logically. Obviously, you could find that sympathetic and parasympathetic work together to erect and ejaculate. According to dominant theory, parasympathetic activation is in charge of erection, and the sacral parasympathetic pathway controlling the sexual organs in both males and females originates in the sacral segments S2–S4 and reaches the target organs via the pelvic nerves. Activity of the postganglionic neurons in the relevant parasympathetic ganglia causes dilation of penile or clitoral arteries, and a corresponding relaxation of the smooth muscles of the venous (cavernous) sinusoids, which leads to expansion of the sinusoidal spaces. In contrast, sympathetic activity causes vasoconstriction and loss of erection. The lumbar sympathetic pathway to the sexual organs originates in the thoraco-lumbar segments (T11-L2). In short, we can believe, that erection center, in spinal cord, controls penis/clitoris erection by parasympathetic nerves, when it gets triggered by enough afferent nerves impulse. 


3.2 Erection behavior

The biggest problem is we bind a lot of things together, such as erection, ejaculation, reproduction, orgasm, etc. We have to distinguish from each other. You might imagine that ejaculation - the release of semen out of your body - is limited to your penis, testicles and other reproductive organs, but you’d be wrong. Apparently, you can see that whether penile erection or flaccidity is not necessary to rely on ejaculation, when the stimulation is discontinued or your mind gets distraction, erection usually subsides without an ejaculation. In fact, penile erection is controlled by the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Specifically, the sacral nerve plexus innervates the vessels and muscles of the penis, causing blood to become entrapped in the corpora cavernosa and spongiosum, which produces an erection, so an erection is a carefully orchestrated series of events controlled by the nervous system, instead of the existence of sperm, The nerve impulse is the source, and the blood is the means, and dilation is just presentation.


According to the dominant theory, there are two types of erections that a male can have, psychogenic and reflex. Reflex erection of your penis, which occurs after direct stimulation of the penis, is under the control of your parasympathetic nerves from the S2, S3 and S4 levels of your spinal cord. Psychogenic erection, involves conscious or mental levels of the brain, and is under the control of your sympathetic nerves from the T11-L2 levels of your spinal cord. To maintain an erection you must have both reflex and psychogenic erection functioning together.


Without a doubt, as the only nerve in penis, the two dorsal nerves take the role of afferent nerves, if we regard the penis as the only receptor which can lead male ejaculation and orgasm. Compared with ejaculation center in spinal cord, which has highly-selective, and I will talk about it later in ejaculation, and input from dorsal nerves is not only way to make penis erection, and apparently a man also can get erection only by seeing porn without any touch, and that is why men like porn so much. The existence of psychogenic erection, at least, illustrates that erection center in spinal cord don’t have much highly-selective like ejaculation center. Based on these characteristics about the process of erection, roughly we can draw out the nerve reflex arc about erection activity.


In the image above, the red arrow represents the direction of nerve conduction, and the purple box represents the erection synapse called Threshold No. 1 for convenience. Next, we discuss this threshold carefully. 


First of all, this synapse must be the chemical synapse, because it has the most significant characteristic of chemical synapse - synaptic delay. You will find that sometimes you need a while to get erection, whatever by direct penis stimulation or seeing porn. Why? We can regard this as the process of threshold accumulation, that there is a threshold there, with the stimulus called local potential input, at the beginning it can’t reach the threshold level to complete depolarization in the erection interneuron, but local potential has superimposed effect, and when the summation reached the threshold level, the erection interneuron gets triggered successfully. This accumulation is also accordance with the principle of spatial and temporal summation. Obviously, erection center can be triggered by erotic fantasy only, without any touch. There is another point to be noted: erect state requires the constantly nerves input to maintain it, and if the stimulation is discontinued or your mind gets a distraction, erection usually subsides without an ejaculation.


Secondly, unlike the synapse with eternal excitatory input from penis rubbing, psychogenic erection is much more complicated. The synapse controlled by brain can be divided into excitatory or inhibitory by excitatory neurotransmitter release or inhibitory neurotransmitter release, and which one to be released depends on the signal from brain. Do you remember such a scene in TV show The L word that after Jenny and Tim get married, Tim can’t get erection however Jenny stimulate his penis, because Tim is in so negative emotions. Apparently, negative emotions from mind inhibit the erection center from being triggered by penis rubbing. I think this is the classic inhibitory example from mind, so I believe that psychogenic erection function from mind not only have the excitation function but also inhibitory function. Whether erection or not depends on the superimposed effect between reflex and psychogenic inputs together.



Finally, there are some issues related to erection.

A.     One thing is like what I said before, that penis erect state requires the continually nerves input to maintain it, and if the stimulation is discontinued or your mind gets distraction, penis can subside back to the flaccid state without an ejaculation. So physiological reaction, what I mean is penis erection, must not be a reason for rape. You know some shameless men would find an excuse for their crime that ‘I can’t control my libido, because it is male nature and every male animal always wants to intercourse’. That is totally bullshit. You should look at the bird mating with ‘Cloacal kiss’, and rape is just for your own selfish desires. The most absurd and illogical thing is the paradox between rape and female vaginal orgasm. Logically, you can’t believe that female can get orgasm during male penetration, if you think the rape is a violation and crime. Do you think Anna in Downton Abbey can get vagina orgasm in the rape by the valet, if he has big, thick, long penis and last very long time? Have you gone nuts? These mortal almost drive me crazy.


B.      One more thing is you may notice that you can’t pee at your erect state, if you are a male. The dominant theory is, there is a ‘Valve’ near the bottom of the bladder that closes off partially during erection and completely during ejaculation. This is to prevent a man from urinating at the same time he is ejaculating. I agreed to this theory before, but now after careful consideration I change my mind for a little bit, because as a female, I also can’t pee at my sexual arousal state. Maybe we are confused by the male complexity that male urethra and reproductive tract shared the same exit at the end, and in the following picture I think the sphincter is the ‘Valve’ what you mention, but have you noticed that the ejaculatory duct fused with urethra within prostate, on the top of the sphincter, and if you regard the sphincter as a ‘Valve’, which not only can prevent urine from flowing out in erect state, and also can prevent the semen out either.



 Then come back to female body, apparently you'll find out the female urethral and reproductive tract are totally two relatively independent systems at least in the geographical position (See following picture). But according to my nearly 20 years experience, I can’t pee out at my sexual arousal state. Why? I think the key problem lies in the spinal cord, instead of valve theory.

Have you noticed that, in the picture of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic, the sympathetic and parasympathetic which control the voiding behavior, are also located in T11-L2 and S2-S4? Sympathetic nerve fibers travel from the spinal cord (T11-L2) to the bladder. These fibers maintain relaxation of the bladder for urine storage. Parasympathetic nerve impulses travel from sacral spinal cord levels (S2-S4) to the bladder wall where they produce bladder contraction and sphincter relaxation to allow voiding. In addition to the internal sphincter, there is also an external urethral sphincter that is under voluntary control and is innervated by nerves originating in the sacral spinal cord (S2-S4). This sphincter normally contracts in response when a person actively tries to prevent the flow of urine. The details of storage reflexes and micturition reflex are showed as followed:


 
In short, the locations of micturition center have high degree of overlap with erection. That's quite a coincidence, and I think this is the reason why people can't urinate with an erection. Specifically speaking, the existence of inhibitory interneuron is the reason. When contrasted with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain, are all interneurons. However, in the CNS, the term interneuron is used for small, locally projecting neurons (in contrast to larger projection neurons with long-distance connections). CNS interneurons are typically inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. Briefly speaking, when some neuron in CNS gets activated by afferent impulses, at the same time it activates an inhibitory interneuron, and then this inhibitory interneuron is going to inhibit its neighbors nearby. The high degree of overlap in location just offers this possibility. More interesting thing is, based on my long-term experience; holding urine can help me to reach my orgasm threshold as soon as possible, so I do believe that the key reason lies in spinal cord. Have you noticed that there is a branch of erection interneuron in the picture of erection center I drew, when erection center get triggered? I think this interneuron is going to activate an inhibitory neuron also in S2-S4, which can inhibit the micturition. 


C.        According to Wikipedia, The dorsal nerve of clitoris is a nerve in females that branches off the pudendal nerve to innervate the clitoris. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris is analogous to the dorsal nerve of the penis in males. It is a terminal branch of the pudendal nerve. In fact, female and male have the exactly same nerve conduction pathways during a real orgasm, but because of female still in self-deception so far, I don’t want to waste my time and energy to explain the differences between homologous reproductive organs in sexes, the followings pictures are vividly demonstrated where you should rub. 



Here what I want to explain is the a little difference between sexes. Because we can regard the clitoris shaft as an underdeveloped penis, but it can not complete the 180 angle tilt like a penis, consequently I only can rub the dorsal of my clitoris shaft close to the pubis arch, instead of the glans of clitoris, but it is enough to achieve my goal very soon. I am not a male, but I guess male must collect the stimuli to cross the threshold also from the dorsal of penis. Sometimes I was hooked up by porn video, and I feel nerve beating on clitoris shaft basically equivalent to my heartbeat frequency, and I have to pout my ass in order to my pants not touch my nerves there, but I can’t feel any nerve beating, from vagina except some mucus discharged from it. Only in my orgasm, I can feel a series of drastic contraction from my vagina and womb. Frankly speaking, I don’t think vaginal or womb is rich in nerve endings, and in China, lots of women suffer serious female disease, like cervical erosion, vaginal ulceration, but they have no idea about the misery. Why? Because female reproductive track is lack of sensory nerves. 


3.3 Ejaculation and orgasm behavior


3.3.1 Ejaculation behavior
In my opinion, we can regard human sexual activity as a transition from parasympathetic to sympathetic, and the key problem in women is failure of the transition from parasympathetic to sympathetic, inability to reach orgasm. Apparently, the necessary afferent nerve must come from penis rubbing, I believe that no male admit he can get orgasm just dependent on thinking or meditation. Compared to the erection center can be triggered by two independent means, the stimulation from dorsal nerves of penis is the necessary condition for ejaculation and orgasm under normal circumstances, although I admit sexual fantasy is very helpful during my sex life, but with dorsal nerves rubbing is irreplaceable. There is another case to prove this uniqueness: Due to premature ejaculation (PE) is identified as one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions, so there are various stupid treatments for this disease created by our human. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis is a one of the treatments to be used for PE. The main idea of this operation is resecting some branches of dorsal nerves in order to decrease the sensitivity of the penis. I admit that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, but just temporarily, what if these males gets older and older, when the neural function decline, whether there are enough nerves on penis to collect signals to reach the ejaculation threshold? In fact, erectile function is also affected, when the psychogenic erection declines. This disease is unwarranted, based on stupid theory that female need long-time penetration to achieve orgasm. I think they should apply this surgery to male lions, because they only lasts 7 seconds, and must be more eager to extend the mating time to satisfy female lions. Let’s also start with afferent nerves and roughly we can draw out the nerve reflex arc during 


 About threshold No.2, I have something to say different from threshold No.1. First of all, the phenomenon, that penis erection happens before ejaculation, indicates that the value of threshold No.2 is bigger than threshold No.1. In other words, threshold No.1 is much easier to be crossed than No. 2, consequently, erection is the premise of ejaculation and orgasm generally. Secondly, different from threshold No.1, which can be crossed only by erotic fantasy, threshold No.2 can’t be crossed only dependent on mind without any penis rubbing, but I have to admit erotic fantasy is really helpful for my orgasm as soon as possible. Why is that? I guess it is because of the different principles: in threshold No.1, erotic imagination from brain can cause complete depolarization of postsynaptic membrane independently, but in threshold No.2, function of fantasy here only takes the role of auxiliary, maybe concerned to G-protein linked receptors, or second messenger, instead of excitatory transmitter to generate excitatory postsynaptic potential in order to depolarize on postsynaptic membrane. Frankly speaking, I don’t understand the G-protein linked receptors or second messenger either, but what I am sure is fantasy input must do something to decrease the value of threshold No.2 in the depolarization of postsynaptic membrane. All in all, we could regard the ejaculation center controlled by cooperation between mind and afferent nerves from penis/clitoris shaft rubbing, so I have to fantasy something in my mind to help me trigger the ejaculation center firing as soon as possible.

In fact, reaching the threshold by the accumulation of the small and firing, not only happens in process of male ejaculation, but also in lots of areas, here I give you a classic example like this in chemistry - Soxhlet extractor, which is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet. Below is the structure of Soxhlet extractor:

 I compare the two concepts: the left is the original meaning and the right is the nerve impulse accumulation in threshold No. 2. Notice here: there is a siphon line as same as threshold potential, when the liquid level reaches the line, and then syphonage happens, and the solvent automatically go back to the round flask by a siphon side arm. As long as the siphon line was reached, there is no going back. I am quite sure that nerve impulse accumulation in threshold No. 2 basically has the same principle as Soxhlet extractor. I hope this simile can help you to understand the mechanism of human sexuality better. 

3.3.2 Orgasm behavior
Next is the issue of orgasm what we call. At the beginning, I must show you my view about orgasm definitely: orgasm, what I mean, is a flow of current running along the spine bottom-up, accompanied by body strong shiver at the same time, must be of a fixed neural pattern and totally a human's special gift given by Creator. Frankly speaking, I really do not think the lower animals have this ability like human beings, even though mammals also adopt the reproductive strategy of penis – vagina. I am going to give the reasons to support my view. 

First of all, the mammal’s world must be full of rape, sodomy and masturbation, if the male mammals really enjoy pleasure in the sex, especially in the species with big differences in size and strength between two sexes. I think this point is not hard to understand, so far rape is not a rare thing even in human society so-called a high level of civilization, let alone in beast. But the fact is that basically mammals mate only in female period of ovulation, and other non-mammal animals don’t even have the penis, so I do prefer to believe that the mating between non-human animals is reproductive behaviour, not sexual pleasure behaviour. By the way here, apparently male human beings have evolved out of the samsara of animals that mating is just for reproduction, but women have not.

Secondly, often there are some shameless and ignorant men to complain that ‘Men have paid enough to take care of children and women, but women always ask too much, and you see, no other male animals takes the responsibility of child-rearing, but only the men’. Here let me riposte these shameless views. On one hand, you are right, non-human animals don’t have to take care of female living, but they don’t need female as sexual tools or receptacle in non-ovulation period either. In my opinion, it is totally a deal, you get what you want from me, and I get want I want from you. This deal is a bit like prostitution that you want to get something from a prostitute, and you must pay something back, or you can choose to jerk yourself. On this point, Simone de Beauvoir has the same idea in The Second Sex: ‘the only difference between women who sell themselves in prostitution and those who sell themselves in marriage is in the price and the length of time the contract runs. For both the sexual act is a service; the one is hired for life by one man; the other has several clients who pay her by the piece’. I think this is the essence of contract of tranditional marriage. ‘marriage is the only remaining example of slavery,’ says John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, you are wrong, not all female animals take the responsibility of child-rearing, in fish, because of the ‘cruel bind’, female run away after the release of eggs, and the male have to raise offspring. Come back to human beings, it is also a deal, but a lot of irresponsible men in China still ran away and left child to women. Why is that? Because when I no longer use you as a receptacle or I have found a new receptacle, I don’t have pay anything to you in future, and the option is up to you, raising the child or killing the child. I know you are not going to kill our children, because you have invest a lot on them. That is why I approve of Chinese gorverment’s law, that do not grant the legal identity to children out of wedlock. If you are from West, you could say I am cold-blooded; I don’t care, because you have no idea how Chinese think. In fact, this law is to protect the woman in second best way. If a man wants to have a child, he has to be forced by law into a marriage, not for others benefit, but himself genes, and the contract of marriage will be effective more or less in ‘cruel bind’. If not, women still descend to the state of sex slave, but countless children and women are going to suffer abandoned as same as in animals world.

Finally, like what I said before, ducks and insects, even though they also have the penis to insert female body, but the penis just plays a role of pipeline, transporting the sperm over to the female, and the order of spermiation is also from brain instead of penis. Ducks and insects choose penis as the reproductive strategy as same as mammal, but it doesn’t mean they share the same mechanism of spermiation as mammal. In the same way, mammals share the mechanism of spermiation as same as human beings that they have to collect the accumulation from penis rubbing to trigger ejaculation center firing, but it doesn’t mean they share the exactly the same neural reflex as human beings in whole sexual activity, especially in CNS, and direct evidence is that non-human animals can’t be hooked up by other animal mating scene. Same story: people always incline to be deceived by appearance and the phenomenon presented. 

All in all, I insist on my opinion: orgasm is the unique gift given by Creator. Next, we are going to focus on this gift and see what we can get. Obviously, for men, orgasm is always accompanied by ejaculation, and let me think about my orgasm every time, my orgasm is also indeed accompanied by a series of strong contraction in the genital area, even though I can’t ejaculate my germ cells out of my body like male, but I still believe that there is no direct relationship between orgasm and spermiation, and in other words, the there is no reciprocal causation between the two. Here I give you an example to help you to understand what I mean – Vasectomy, which is a surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the male vasa deferentia are severed and then tied/sealed in a manner so as to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate) and thereby prevent fertilization from occurring. (See the following figure)

So many cases turn out this surgery does not affect a man's ability to achieve orgasm, ejaculate, or have an erection. There will still be fluid (semen) in the ejaculate, but it will contain no sperm. So I believe that when the ejaculation center gets triggered to fire by afferent nerve from penis rubbing, one branch of it sends the signal of intense contraction to the target organs, and whether spermiation successfully or not is another process. In other words, I give you an order to release sperm, but whether you listen to me is none of my business and doesn’t affect back my order. I think every mammal has this branch in ejaculation center. There must be another branch to orgasm center in human spinal cord, which are very important for human orgasm. Before I talk about this synapse, I prefer to give you another interesting phenomenon: Pee Shiver.

Post-micturition convulsion syndrome, also called pee shiver, is a human phenomenon in which a person feels a shiver running down their spine following urination. The event can produce a brief twitch. It is a form of myoclonus, which is the involuntary twitching of a muscle. There is currently no agreed explanation for the phenomenon, but it is reported by men all over the world. Not every man experiences pee shivers and only a small percentage of women have described the event, so some researchers believe that maybe it is the whole ‘Standing vs. Sitting’ thing.

Pee shiver is quite a common thing among many people, but there has been strangely very little scientific research into it. Because of this, as to why it happens; no one really knows. At present, there are two major schools of thought. One dominant theory insists that it's just a reflex to a drop in temperature: the rapid release of warm fluid lowers the body's overall temperature leaving it to react the same way you would in a cold breeze. The other theory points to the autonomic nervous system, since the autonomic nervous system is in control of many involuntary bodily functions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of activities that occur when the body is at rest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, digestion, and defecation. There is another argument that pee shiver feels like a miniature orgasm.

Frankly speaking, I had experienced this pee shiver from time to time, so I believe I'm entitled to express my views about pee shiver, because it really has something relevant to human orgasm. First of all, I agree absolutely with that pee shiver is like a miniature orgasm, also an involuntary shiver as same as orgasm shiver. In my pee shiver, I can obviously feel a flow of current delivery bottom-up along my spine, and then spread out nearby the chest, and frankly speaking, pee shiver indeed feels like a miniature orgasm, but not strong as orgasm, and the duration is very short, just 1 or 2 seconds, but my orgasm shiver is a series of shivers, which can last much longer than pee shiver, general 5-7 seconds, companied by the orgasm sprint. Another common thing is both can cause goose bumps on his face sometimes. Sorry, it is very hard to express very well. Secondly, what I am quite sure is pee or orgasm shiver is not a reaction to the loss of several ounces of warm fluid, because in my orgasm, I barely discharge any liquid out of my body (at most I can feel a little mucus squeezed out when I stand up, it is very like the feeling in menstrual period), and there is time lag. In addition, I can feel that the mechanisms of the two neural reflexes are not the same. Pee shiver feels like a miniature orgasm bottom-up like what I said, but I can’t feel any flow of current delivery at all in cold shiver. In pee shiver or orgasm, I can feel the shiver burst and fade away only in several seconds, but in cold shiver, the shiver is very even, and maybe lasts 1 minute if I am still in the cold, always companied by teeth chattering, but teeth chattering never happens in my orgasm or pee shiver. Finally, pee shiver often occurs after I have held on to the urine for quite a long time before finally releasing it.

In fact, I don’t know the real reason for pee shiver either, and in my whole personal experience for 20 years, the orgasm shiver and pee shiver are the only two things where I can feel pleasure and release from. After careful consideration, I think it is really concerned to the autonomic nervous system, because the orgasm shiver or pee shiver is the direct result of sexuality or urination, and have you noticed that the autonomic nervous systems of sexuality and urination, whether sympathetic or parasympathetic, both in the same level of spine cord? We have noticed that pee shiver always happens at the end of micturition. What does it mean? It means the pee shiver and orgasm shiver both happen at the transition from parasympathetic to sympathetic, and I guess when this transition is very fast and acute and intense, it will cause a shiver bottom-up, but notice here: the two shivers are not exactly the same; pee shiver is just a miniature orgasm. What makes the difference?

The question nagged me for long days, because it determines how I build my orgasm model. On one hand, there must be a shiver center within T12-L2, which can produce this specific shiver. So far, we have not found anything about male mammal shiver in the ejaculation, and no clue about animal’s pee shiver, so I guess this shiver center only belongs to our human beings. On the other hand, after the ejaculation center gets triggered successfully and decides to fire, one branch of it must go to activate the shiver center, also named orgasm center. Frankly speaking, my every orgasm feeling is not exactly the same, sometimes very strong, sometime little weak, why is that? I guess the only explanation is this synapse is electrical synapse, because it is accordance with lots of characteristics of electrical synapse, such as synchrony (orgasm shiver is always synchronous with ejaculation), no plasticity (orgasm what I feel in my 30 years old is as same as the beginning in my 12 years old), excitatory only and attenuation.

Based on above reasons, I assert that orgasm synapse is an electrical synapse. About pee shiver, it happens most often to males, even though only a small percentage of females experience it as well, I think it fully illustrates that women also have this orgasm shiver center, moreover gender can’t cause the difference in central nervous system, because this property of CNS belongs to the whole species, decided by other non-gonadal genes, and an average gene will spend approximately half its time sitting in male bodies, and the other half sitting in female bodies. At least, it proves that women are not inferior to men in orgasm ability, and luckily I am not the abnormal woman.

3.3.3 Refractory period

Final issue is refractory period: Like what I said in section 2, every neuron has refractory period after firing, the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following excitation, and in sexuality, refractory period is the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for an individual to have additional orgasms. Generally speaking, refractory period is very common thing in male human beings, but there is a question that in mammals, during a mating bout, a couple may copulate twenty to forty times a day for several days, and some lions mate over 50 times a day, but mostly of mating only last 10 seconds or less. My question is why non-human animals have so short refractory period, in addition, there is no clue that non-human males would fall into sleep immediately. Why is that?

In my opinion, it is because non-human animals don’t have the orgasm shiver center in spine cord, so they can’t experience the pleasure of series flow current bottom-up, and of course the brain is not going to release anything to make them drowsy. Briefly, the sexual refractory period only belongs to our human beings, and not due to the depolarization or hyperpolarization in a neuron, but something released from brain. Because neuronal refractory period generally lasts too short, just one millisecond, not enough to cause human into sleep immediately, I think that is the reason why other mammals can mate so crazy during the mating season without any sleep. Here I need to make confession, that immediately after my orgasm, I not only lose all interests in sex, but also even disgusted with sex. I don’t know why, on one hand, I am so disgusted with sex, because I know porn films are so low and without any true love; on the other hand, I know I need to see them, because I need to release.

3.4 My model of human
In the previous articles, I have compared the pros and cons of three models one by one : female sexual response model developed by Masters and Johnson, Circular model of female sexual response developed by Whipple and Brash-McGreer, and Non-linear Model of female sexual response developed by Basson, so here I am going to focus on introduction of my model. By the way, I think just because the fact, that only small percentage of women experience the pee shiver, causes women don’t know what the real orgasm feels like. Compared to previous model I proposed, I believe this model is much more authentic and reliable, because at that time I didn’t know how a neuron works.
The above is my new model, and let me explain it one step at a time.

First of all, we can call the red line as the excitement phase, people collect the stimuli from dorsal nerves or mind, and when the summation reachs the erection threshold, the erection center is successfully triggered to fire, and consequently penile erection happens in males and clitoris shaft erection happens in female. Sometimes I can be hooked up by the outside world instantaneously, and sometime I have to see porn video for minutes. Here I have to confess that I am always hooked up by mind and hardly by touching clitoris shaft, maybe because I am single always, so it is hard to say how long T1 would take, probably the older I am, the longer I need.

Secondly, we can call the blue solid line as the plateau phase. When in erect state, male can insert the erectile penis into female vagina. Like what I said, psychogenic erection must be the most important reason why human being can no longer produce penis bone, even through we still have the genes of that bone. In this phase, people continue to collect the stimuli from dorsal nervers, when the summation reachs the ejaculation threshold, the ejaculation center is successfully triggered to fire, and consequently spermiation happens in males, accompanied by pudendal intense contraction. Certainly there's a point to be made that, based on the existing knowledge, women can’t discharge any gametes out of body, but it doesn’t mean women are not going to discharge any fluid out after so-called ejaculation center fires. You have to notice the fact that, for men, semen is the fluid released from the penis upon ejaculation and is made up of two things: sperm from the vas deferens and seminal fluid, and seminal fluid contains fluid from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles, and the bulk of the semen is made up of seminal fluid, and sperm make up only about 2% to 5% of the volume of semen itself. So I do believe that, in a real orgasm, women also can experience pudendal intense contraction and discharge some fluid from accessory gonads. In fact, I does. In short, I think we can regard female real orgasm as same as male orgasm with vasectomy. Generally, I can't hold out much longer, my T2 always lasts only 1-2 minutes, I think I also suffer premature ejaculation badly. The blue dotted line represents the failure of ejaculation center activation. For example, when I was rubbing my clitoris shaft against my bed, mother suddently came home, and I had to give up this game unwillingly.

Thirdly, we can call the green line orgasm phase, I have to admit that pudendal intense contraction and orgasm shiver bottom-up nearly happen at the same time, and it is indeed very easy to identify the orgasm shiver as the result of male spermiation, if I were not a female, maybe I can’t distinguish them either. While ejaculation center is successfully triggered to fire, orgasm center starts to fire almost at the same time. Based on my personal experiences for amost 20 years, sometimes I could experience a series of strong orgasm shivers within 5 seconds (Represented by green line), and sometimes weak orgasm shivers (Represented by brown dotted line), and sometimes I can feel I lose that spurt of energy, but feel nothing about shiver (Represented by pink dotted line). I really don’t know why, it seems to depend on my body situation, maybe because this electrical synapse is very vulnerable, unstable and degressive. Here there is another thing to be clear: some scholars proposed that men also fake orgasms as same as women. In my opinion, this is the most shameless and ignorant argument, in order to console the unbalanced hearts of women.

Finally, I fall into refractory period immediately after my ejaculation center firing. Here there is one thing to be clear, that refractory period doesn’t mean every time I need to sleep right now, for example sometimes I like to enjoy myself pleasure once in the morning just after waking up, and the morning shiver would make me refreshed in spirit all day, instead of drowsiness right away. I don’t know why, maybe the resistance increases in orgasm electrical synapse when I was asleep, so the neural circuit only goes up to the spinal cord, not the brain, in other words, my brain can’t be triggered successfully to release drowsy hormone. And sometimes the purpose I masturbate is not for sexual pleasure, but for a treatment of insomnia, because an orgasm is really helpful for sleep; sometimes I experience very strong orgasm shivers, my face is full of goose bumps, and I like this feeling best.

All in all, so far women still have not got an equal opportunity to experience this gift given by Creator, people always find the excuse that ‘every woman is different with different types of orgasms.’ as self-deception. In my opinion, this irresponsible sophistry is typical double standard, not only in orgasm, but also in humanity. So far, female orgasm is still mystery for the public, but I do believe that mystery belongs to the slave, and women are all the sexual slaves in this traditional marriage, based on mammal reproductive strategy of vagina-penis, no exception. The key to women’s failure doesn’t lie in men, but in women themselves. Before a man have a real sex with a woman, he has a long history about masturbation on himself after his puberty, so he is very familiar with real orgasm feeling, for men, masturbation is taken for granted as being routine as brushing their teeth; but for women, they almost do nothing about orgasm after the puberty, female masturbation remains one of the most stigmatized topics to discuss. Aristotle said ‘Happiness belongs to the self-sufficient’, for me now, he really had prophetic vision. In my opinion, the female greatest woe lies in always expecting others to bring her happiness or orgasm, but not depending on herself. Brifly, she doesn’t know any pleasure is the result of self-sufficient. Ultimately women are lack of intellect - objective intellect, and they don’t even understand a common philosophy of mathematics that the fraction has no meaning if the denominator is zero. The most unrealistic vain hope, for women, is lying in bed with split legs, and waiting for an orgasm from penetration, but doing nothing themselves. For everyone, the process in human pursuit of orgasm is the process of self-struggle between sympathetic and parasympathetic. Briefly every orgasm is just the result of masturbation, and the only difference is people use different objective tool to stimulate the dorsal nerves: straight men use female mouth and vagina, gay men use male mouth and anus, and I use my bed, because this is the most convenient and safe form for me to get my purpose.

I just want to say that let everything return to its origin: let love go back to its nature, and sex to its nature, and sports to its nature, and reproduction to its nature. Searching the truth of female orgasm in reproductive model is like the Chinese anti-corruption within the system, and you are not going to find the truth ever. ‘What a misfortune to be a woman! And yet the misfortune, when one is a woman, is at bottom not to comprehend that it is one,’ says Kierkegaard. Here I want to use Wang Qishan’s words ‘In the future you will slowly understand’.


Section four: some questions



There are some other important issues relevant to human orgasm I want to be clear:

4.1 Spinal cord injury
According to Wikipedia, a spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord resulting in a change, either temporary or permanent, in the cord's normal motor, sensory, or autonomic function. The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of function to occur. Depending on where the spinal cord and nerve roots are damaged, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain to paralysis to incontinence, due to incomplete or complete injury. (See the following figure)


 For men, maintaining a healthy sex life after spinal cord injury is an important priority. But it is very hard to say whether a male can erection or ejaculation after SCI, because it depends on the location and the degree of injury. In my opinion, as long as you have a complete reflex arc, you can complete the corresponding physiological response, but maybe you are not aware of that, because your brain can not accept any information from a damaged path. Here I want to point out that, of course we need to avoid any damage on spinal cord as we can, but once misfortune happens to you, you also can use some other modern medical techniques to have a baby.

For women, it is generally recognized that paralysis itself doesn't affect a woman's libido or her need to express herself sexually, nor does it affect her ability to conceive a child. This view is absolutely wrong, and the main reason is the existence of double standard between the sexes on the subject of orgasm. Here I have to admit that the female orgasm is really a by-product of evolution, and the model of breaking through the threshold is only for the purpose of better fertilization, even though most mammals adopt this model as reproductive strategy, instead of the model of brain control in birds and amphibians, but after orgasm center has involved in our human genes, the purpose of sex is orgasm pleasure, instead of reproduction. I bet that, if let men must choose either reproduction or orgasm, almost all men will choose orgasm rather than reproduction, because I will choose the same. Female greatest inferiority is that reproductive ability has nothing to do with her orgasm ability. In short, spinal cord injury also affect female orgasm a lot, because female orgasm is of fixed neural pattern as same as male.

4.2 Viagra
Sildenafil citrate, sold as Viagra, is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction (inability to sustain a satisfactory erection to complete intercourse). It acts by inhibiting cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that promotes degradation of cGMP, which regulates blood flow in the penis. In other words, Viagra doesn't bring back sexual desire, and all Viagra can do is restore blood flow to the penis which is necessary to get and keep an erection for penis insertion. Recently years, some research institutions claim that Female Viagra is scientifically formulated to provide intense sexual satisfaction for women seeking ultimate pleasure. I think this irresponsible rhetoric will mislead women into another wrong path, you should figure out what exactly female orgasm it is before you want to increase it. In a word, you can’t get what exactly you want, till you know what you want. Frankly speaking, I don’t believe female Viagra can have any effect on women, because the problem it solved is erection, then in order to solve the problem of insertion, but there is no existence of insertion problem on women, so I am sure women need sexual desire instead of erection. The real reason for women suffering so low sex desire is women get nothing as a reward in this activity, and this principle is like the rat in “Skinner box”, you can imagine that a rat is not going to press the lever after many times it presses the lever but gets nothing food back. This principle also works in Game Theory; you are not going to choose cooperation after your rival cheated on you for sometimes.

4.3 Female faking orgasm
This is the most interesting issue I think. Faking orgasm refers to the act of pretending to have an orgasm without actually experiencing one. In my opinion, an orgasm, whether female or male, is a certain and fixed sequence of a series of given neurons, we can call it fixed neural pattern in neurotransmission, already written in human genes by Creator. I think there are some reasons for female faking orgasm.

First of all, the main reason is women have not formed a clear idea of real orgasm. David Hume said that in his A Treatise of Human Nature: ‘the simple impressions always take the precedence of their correspondent ideas, but never appear in the contrary order, and this priority of the impressions is an equal proof, that our impressions are the causes of our ideas, not our ideas of our impressions. Nor is this only true, where the organs of sensation are entirely destroyed, but likewise where they have never been put in action to produce a particular impression. We cannot form to ourselves a just idea of the taste of a pineapple, without having actually tasted it’. I think this is why woman looked down her nose at my doctrine. I taste pineapple every night, but I know it is very hard to convince other women who never taste the pineapple at all.

Secondly, just because she has no idea of real orgasm, she wants to try everything she could do, like moan, groan, panting, and scream, and even yell, to close to so-called female orgasm, and as a result, male mistakenly think this status of hysteria is female orgasm. Moreover, women are full of vanity; they are so afraid of this self-denial and worried to be thought abnormal by the man who had sex with them, so they have to admit they have female orgasm. Unfortunately, women fall into a vicious spiral by deception and ignorance. Some one said that the reason why female fake orgasm is to feed husband’s vanity, but it is wrong; they feed their own vanity.

Finally, the last situation is for pleasing their partner, often happens between Johns and prostitutes. The prostitutes exhibit a series of exaggerated expressions to please her client that: you have the best sexual ability of the world, and you make me orgasms many times already, but the real intention is that: hurry up, idiot, ejaculate as fast as possible, and there is another business waiting for me. Because prostitutes know that the more loudly they scream, the faster the clients ejaculate. We can regard this situation as a professional spirit. In Game Theory, it is not hard to understand the principle - maximize my payoff and minimize my cost. When my payoff is certain, I must choose cost-minimization as my responsive strategy.

4.4 The role of brain in sexual activity
Apparently, I am always trying to escape from this issue, because based on the limitation of existing knowledge, it is very hard to make a right judgment. Here I want to express my true feelings based on my personal experience for 20 years. To be honest, I don't watch porn in my daily life; I am going to see it only on this condition my body needs to be satisfied. This sexual desire is difficult to say, because it is spontaneous, but this evil thought is just fleeting and not strong enough to drive me to move. Next, I need to download porn as preparation for myself pleasure. My only purpose of seeing porn is just for the orgasm shiver release, and I am sure I don’t like porn at all, but I indeed need it, and I even immediately feel sick of porn after getting my purpose. I really don’t know why? In my daily life, I usually watch some film about true love, the scene of the true love’s kiss also can make me arousal, but a little different from seeing porn. I can obviously feel a kind of beckoning feelings running along my spine top-down, hitting my heart, like an electric shock, and then I genital area responses for that and there is a very little time lag between the two, but I feel nothing about heartbeating in porn film. Moreover, there is another humiliating thing I have to face: I can’t orgasm during the fantasy of true love or someone I love. In other words, while I am rubbing my dorsal nerves in my clitoris shaft, in my mind I must plunge myself into an erotic, low, vulgar and raunchy scene, and imagine I have sex with someone unfamiliar. This kind of imagination would help to reach my threshold as soon as possible. I can’t imagine someone I love; the more I love someone, the farther I am away from orgasm shiver. That is why I believe the mind has the different mechanisms in Threshold No.1 and No.2, and fantasy in mind can trigger the erection center successfully by itself, but can’t trigger the ejaculation center by itself. All in all, I guess there are two central regions in brain with mutual exclusion, and one is chaste, divine and non-sexual we call Platonic love, based on mere spiritual attraction, and other is vulgar, low and erotic based on mere material attraction. The time I spent on seeing porn is, generally, much more than the time I spent on rubbing my dorsal nerves. Typically I spent about 20 minutes on porn and only 1 minute on real practice, of course without any distraction in the middle of the whole thing.

Briefly, I have a fixed action pattern in my whole process of masturbation, and I can totally understand why all men can distinguish the love from sex, but women can’t; the key problem of female orgasmic dysfunction depends on women themselves, instead of male, so don’t say that men are selfish, because the orgasm shiver should be totally based on the selfish and eroticism. Plato has compared it to the love of the wolf for the sheep, and I think it means sexual game can’t be a win-win game. Love is giving, and human sex is demanding. If women want real orgasm, they should be more like men. This principle also can be applied into politics, have a look at the women in politics, like Hillary, Park Geun-hye, Condoleezza Rice and so on, they have a lot of male qualities, like cool-headed, sober, merciless and so on, but we can’t say that they deliberately imitate masculine, because politics needs these qualities.

Moreover, mind concentration is very important in the sexual activity. In other words, only constant focusing my attention on sex or sexual fantasy can help me to reach my threshold as soon as possible. If I was absent-minded in the process of rubbing my dorsal nerves, I can’t be unable to complete the threshold breaking. Sometimes, although I was hooked up already, I have to give it up because I can't concentrate my mind. In short, in order to keep the erotic center continued active in my mind, I have to sacrifice all other activity of thought for my last sexual pleasure. I think mind concentration is not only necessary in orgasm, but also in the process of defecation. Sometimes, I played phone games when I was on toilet bowl, I almost forget to poop. Additional, sense of security is also important. Frankly speaking, I can’t pee out if someone watches me pee, because I feel this distraction make me feel a sense of insecurity, and this feeling can be applied into orgasm pursuit that I can’t concentrate my mind on threshold breaking if I feel a sense of insecurity. I believe that the reason why a man wants to make a woman lose consciousness on bed is not only to feed his vanity, but also for his sense of security. I bet the man can’t complete the sex game, if the woman is always staring at him with very clear mind. All in all, I agree with that the brain is indeed the most important sex organ in human body, but so far, we know little about brain.

Last, perhaps, my brain is of male brain. I saw a BBC program about the lengths of female index and ring fingers: the women with their ring finger longer than their index finger had higher levels of testosterone during fetal development, and at the same time their brains may be inclined to masculine. I didn't do any research in this field, so I am not sure of any conclusion, but personally speaking, I think there must be something related to brain. My ring finger is indeed much longer than my index finger. (See the following figure)

But here I have a question, that I am quite sure I am not the only woman on the earth with the longer ring finger, but why they can’t experience the orgasm gift like me? I don’t know why? In fact, I indeed have a flair for many sports and intelligence. Since childhood, I was a quick learner in Sports, Math, Physics and Chemistry, even in Philosophy and Politics, but at the same time I suffered language difficulties badly, not only English, but also Chinese, my mother language. For example, my classmates spent 30 minutes to recite a passage, but I had to spend 2 hours to stammer the passage, for me, reciting is the biggest disaster. On the contrary, I am very good at spirit of adventure, logic reasoning, spatial imagination and a sense of direction. I do believe that, the reason, if you don’t like any movement, must because you can’t experience the pleasure of it, whatever any movements. In my life, I have no friend and suffer a little autism, because I share the contrary value to theirs in many things, and I don’t want to waste my time on them, because I know they are ordinary people with subjective intellect at most, but I am with objective intellect. In short, I don't want to degrade personality to pander to them. I wonder the difference in my brain causes the difference in my orgasm from other women, or conversely?

4.5 The relationship between urination and orgasm
I have been talking about related issue before – the relationship between urination and erection. I think it is because of the existence of central inhibition. Here I want to analyze the relationship between urination and orgasm. Give you an example: when I was 24 years old, because of a true love scene in TV show, I have had orgasm four times a night for a whole week, because next episode would show on in 7 days. In other words, I did it, without any multiple-orgasms, 28 times a week. The direct consequence was that I cannot hold urine for a while, and I almost had to go to washroom 30 times a day, but every time I only peed little. In the next week, I recovered little by little. I don’t know why, but frequent orgasms really disturbed my ordinary urinary function. By the way, so called female ejaculation, also known colloquially as gushing or squirting from urethra, is not orgasm at all, but just urinary incontinence because of the shock pressure on bladder during mechanical movement. Take humiliation as glory. Unfortunately, there is a more nonsensical and good wish that men and women could reach the orgasm at the same time during sex. Here I send you a proverb: The road to hell is paved with good intentions.

Summary
Human sexuality is a topic that has been taboo for many centuries, so far, we still can’t figure out the mechanism of male orgasm yet, let alone the female orgasm, but I believe it is time to solve it. In my puberty, no one taught me how to do it, I didn’t even know what my vulva looked like, because I never touched it, but all I did are derived from my instinct spontaneously, just for personal pleasure, and I didn’t even know the name of this self pleasure is called orgasm.

All in all, human orgasm, whatever male or female, is of fixed neural pattern, and the first thing we have to treat is we should defend the objective standard; the biggest problem of female orgasm is lack of the objective standard. Lowering female orgasm standard is just a form of consolation. Arthur Schopenhauer said ‘Superficial people, to be sure - and, for very good reasons, commonplace people too - will be of the opposite opinion; for if anything fails them they will thus be enabled to console themselves by thinking that it is still to come.’ No, the world is not going to become better and better if without geniuses standing out to subvert old tranditions. My turn now, and I am going to break the yoke of my fate by my persistence. This is the battle between the human rights and reproductive destiny. It’s always darkest before the dawn, but I will never quit, because I am an elitist. I refuse to fulfill the obligations of female before I get my rights of human beings.

Winston Churchill ever said that ‘Laws just or unjust may govern men's actions. Tyrannies may restrain or regulate their words. The machinery of propaganda may pack their minds with falsehood and deny them truth for many generations of time. But the soul of man thus held in trance or frozen in a long night can be awakened by a spark coming from God knows where and in a moment the whole structure of lies and oppression is on trial for its life.’ I am aware that my soul is already awakened by some sort of sparking coming from my instinct, and I am waiting for the moment the whole structure of lies and oppression is on trial for its life.